Grade K: Books on Shelves (Operations and Algebraic Thinking)


4 apple rating


Content Standards

K.OA.1 Represent addition & subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

K.OA.3 Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

K.CC.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.6 Attend to precision.


Addition and subtraction up to 10 using objects

This multi-week unit titled “Book on Shelves”  intended for the second half of the Kindergarten year focuses on initial addition concepts by counting, composing and decomposing numbers, and representing quantities.


Connecticut teachers should be aware that the unit is considered a high quality resource with the following suggestions:

  • Guidance for differentiation and extensions are included (particularly, accommodations for assessment) however teachers will have to develop differentiated instruction at the lesson level.
  • Application of math concepts is limited to game based activities.
  • Teachers will have to develop lessons and establish pacing from the contents found in this unit. It is only described as a “multi-week” unit.


  • Focus: The unit centers on the major work/ concepts of the grade.
  • Rigor:   Instruction allows for student-invented strategies while also providing teachers with a coherent set of strategies for students to work with number relationships. Skill and Fluency: There are many “hands-on” opportunities to develop skills and fluency in counting, and numerical reasoning.
  • Alignment: Content and Practice Standards are instructed and assessed. Rubrics with student work, descriptions and instructional implications are included. Includes a table correlating NCTM Practice Standards and CCSS standards for Math Practices Content and Practice Standards are assessed. Pre-Assessment, Formative and End of Unit Performance assessments included. General strategies for instruction of English Language Learners and Students with Disabilities are included.